HOW TO DO PAPERS
(67% of X's)
This page is about the writing part of your homework - which is
most of your homework. You will write about what you read, and you
will write several drafts each of three different types of academic
papers. All of this writing will count in your course as about 67%
or 67 points/X's of your grade (with attendance counting as about 33% or
What are the basics of 1108 homework?
This is a long page, but there is a lot of very
important and helpful info on it.
First, there are two main kinds of homework in this course, and both
involve lots of writing:
Writing about book
readings: our main two reading books that you will read and discuss,
and our main composition textbook
Writing drafts of different
types of formal papers
There are a few other miscellaneous homework assignments, as well. Simply check the
"Schedule" every week. Your "Course
Packet" that you print out (you need two copies) also has a one-page table of
assignments for the semester.
Thus there are two focuses in this course: examining two nonfiction books and
practicing writing and research beyond what you did in Composition I (Eng 1108):
Two Focuses of Course
time for 1108 for both homework and class time
Read, discuss, & write about the chapters of the
about 1/4th of
your total time in the semester (Reading is in Wks. 2-8.)
Writing & Research:
Practice writing, learn more types of papers,
& practice researching.
about 3/4ths of your total time in the semester (Writing is in Wks. 1-16.)
The chart above shows how your four credits for this course are distributed in
work time. In terms of your overall grading, there is a total of 100%, 100+ points, or
100+ X's possible in the course. Counting all of your weekly papers
and all writing and reading, your
homework is worth 67%, which is the same in this class as 67 points or 67 X's.
Your attendance is worth 33%, points, or X's.
Your active participation/improvement or lack of it can move your final grade up
or down mildly to strongly, up to a letter grade higher or lower. Extra credit
- mainly for attendance but also for
an extra Draft 4 - also is possible. See the "Grading"
page in this Web site for more details.
There are two main types of readings in this course, and several kinds of
writings. First, every week, you will have one or more chapters to
read from the two nonfiction books we are examining this term. I'll
also ask you to write some notes about what you have read so that I know you
have read the books (and so I don't have to give pop quizzes or other
tests). There also will be, during the first three-fourths of the
term, readings from our online writing textbook and our online grammar
handbook. You'll also have to do some brief "Study Questions" about
these textbook and grammar handbook readings.
What about graded papers?
Normally, there would be two major ones, both related in some way to the books
we will read and discuss. However, this particular section of this course
is different from most other composition courses in that there are no regular
graded papers. Instead, there is a series of drafts of different papers,
and each draft, when satisfactorily completed, receives two or more X's
(depending on its difficulty). You will have as many times as you need to
fix these drafts until they are right. They replace graded papers.
The instructions for writing these papers are in the "Course
I using this system of having a lot of non-graded, X'ed drafts? It is my experience
that people learn writing best from a lot of practice. I can guarantee you that by
the end of this course, if you have worked hard and received a "C" or better for
the course, you will be a better writer--and probably a much better, more confident
writer. Students who have used this system in past terms tell me that they feel less
pressure and like having as many opportunities as they can to get their papers
right. This system also rewards those who work hard and work consistently. It
simply is a matter of practice. Consider this course your apprenticeship in writing,
as if you were apprenticed to a craftsman (me) who takes you just one step at a time and
gives you plenty of chances to get each step right, as long as you are willing to keep
What are the due
dates & delivery methods?
due dates and delivery of your homework are as follows:
due at the beginning of class on Thursday.
Can you do homework during class?
Nope. You need to have the homework done before class so that
you can pay full attention to what we're doing in class. I also like you to have it done
before coming to class on Thurs. so you know better what we are talking about
homework if you miss class? If you do not attend class, you do not have to turn in
homework until the next time you come to class. When you do come to
class, if you have late homework, write at the top of it something like "missed
last class" or "missed last week" (no other explanation is needed--I
can double check the attendance records).
The Draft 1-4
papers need to be turned in as quickly as you can, especially if you want an
"A" or "B."
How quickly can you give them to
me and pick
them up again? You can do it as fast as twice a week. I'm on campus at
least two days a week and can leave papers out for you to pick up when I arrive.
If you're going to miss class but want to pick up your paper later that day
or the next day, email me before 10 am on class day, and ask, "Please leave
my paper on or by your office door." My office is in the same building as
our class, the Business building. My office is just inside the main front
doors. Go in that first door by the main front doors and then look for
"B-136"--the first office door on your right.
To drop off papers before I leave
campus, usually at 3:50 pm, you can slide them under my office door (B-136).
(If you want to
bring a paper to my house to meet a deadline or get it back faster, see how
to find my house at
If you want to send general
homework to me online, please know that I prefer to get it at school. However, if you are up against
a deadline, you can explain that to me and then send it by email. Please put
general homework in the text of your email. However, for papers,
please attach them.
If you want to email me a Draft
1-4 online, please follow these instructions. Generally, as I said
above, I want you to bring drafts to me at school, but if that is
impossible, then you may do the following for first-time Draft 1's, 2's,
3's, and 4's. However, if you are turning in a second-time paper (a
revised Draft 1, 2, 3, or 4), generally you must turn it in by hand at
school. The only exception to this is if the changes I have asked you
to make (the revisions I have requested) are very few in number, and you can
easily explain them by typing them out in a list. Here are the
instructions for sending A Draft 1-4 online:
Copy & paste cover pages:
1. Copy the two pages of
the cover sheet.
2. Paste them at the very
beginning of your manuscript (they will become pp. 1-2).
(Don't worry about the formatting of their margins, yet.)
3. Write-- in the blank
area where "Comments" go-- whether this is a first-time version of this draft
if it is not, then write in the comments that I made on your previous
version of this draft.
Next, format them:
4. Highlight (mark with
your mouse) these two cover-sheets pages (first two pages only);
5. Set margins: go into
"File/Page Setup/Margins" and set them as follows:
Top=.23, Bottom=.23, Left=.25, Right=.25,
and below these, set "Preview/Apply to" on "Selected
Add other pages:
6. Copy & paste your
bibliography to the end of your paper.
(Please do not send the bib. as a separate attachment.)
Rename and attach your files:
7. Rename your file so
the names are accurate (e.g., "Shawn S. D-2c 2nd time").
8. Attach them to an
email to me with a properly labelled subject matter (e.g., "D-2c 2nd time").
9. Rename & attach a
file for the previous paper, too, if you have it (e.g., "D2c 1st time").
PAPERS and MAKE UP: "See "Late Papers and
Make Up" below.
Submitting weekly papers by email?
SAVING ONLINE MESSAGES: Are you sending homework by email? Always keep a
copy in case your email is lost. Keep it until the end of the term. If
your email system has a "sent mail" folder, you may want to not
delete items from the folder until after you have received your final grade. Are you
using a bulletin board (BB)? Be careful to wait until you see your message appear on
the bulletin board, like other messages, before doing anything else on your
computer. If you still have trouble losing BB messages, write and save them in MS
Word first; then copy them to the BB and send them.
Please make them in-text--in the text of your email itself--not attached. That means you should
simply write them as an email message or, if you already have them on a word processing
file, you should use your mouse and your "Edit" function to mark, then
"Copy," and then "Paste" them into a regular email message.
(2) To help me keep your paper separate from my regular email, use this subject
title: Course # & section #, the Week
Due, Assignment Type, and Name+Initial: e.g., "1111-99 Wk. 5 Comments Sue J.,"
Always keep a copy until after the end of the course when you've received your course
(4) If you send me an email message (other
than homework), please write "Question" in the subject line so I'll open
it right away. Be sure your full name is somewhere in the email, too.
And in the first several weeks, please remind me which course and section you're in.
I ask this because I receive several dozen homework assignments each week by email, and I
only open homework once or twice per week. (5-05)
What are the readings?
See the "Readings & Resources"
page in this web site.
If you want to know what the reading assignments
are for each week, please see Dates/Weekly Assignments
in this web site.
What are the weekly
(Study Questions, Summaries, Class Journals, and
Drafts of Papers)
to "weekly homework papers"
All assignments are based on the weekly "Schedule,"
and many of them are rough draft. The rough-draft papers may be written quickly,
even sloppily, by pen or by computer printout (but Drafts 1-4 do have to be typed).
You'll get a check mark for doing them and receive a grade at the end of the term for how
many check marks you've received.
The comments about your readings are meant to help
you think more about--and better absorb--the readings. These comments also help me
know that you are doing the readings. They are like lab practice in a biology course
or drills in physical education or sports: for your practice and thinking. I will
skim these papers quickly, but I won't usually read every word that you write, as the
papers are mainly for your practice (and besides, I receive 100-400 such papers per week
from my four or five classes, so I don't have time to read and comment on all). For
this reason, if you have a question or want me to look at a particular place on your
comments, write a note to me in dark ink or circled at the top of your paper so I will
notice it! I will be glad to answer any questions you have or look more
carefully at a part or a paper special to you and comment on it. By having these
"practice" papers, we can avoid tests, pop quizzes, and other objective
All papers must be on time. Late papers are not accepted because most of them help
you prepare for class discussions and activities. Most assigned papers for any given
week always will be due on Wednesday or Thursday of that week (depending on whether my
classes for the term are on M/W or T/Th), whether on campus or online. (And for a
night class, your papers will be due at the time you show up for
class.) However, there are some exceptions: see ""Due Dates & Delivery Methods" above for more.
Please remember to consider the weekly writings as "lab" papers--written in very
rough-draft form--without worrying about grammatical usage, spelling, or
HOW TO PRESENT THE WEEKLY PAPERS
(1) Read the assigned
(2) Write about what you
read. In most weeks, there will be a different type of writing to do about
your chapters. Please see the schedule to determine what kind of paper you
should write in any given week.
When you write your weekly papers about your
readings, you will need to write a minimum number of words. Please check
the weekly schedule to see how many words you must write in a particular week
for a particular type of paper. Please also use the following directions
in presenting all papers about readings, "Study Questions," and
"Journals" - your doing this, as shown below, will help me process your papers
more easily, given that I have a few hundred short papers to look at each week:
HOW TO PRESENT THE WEEKLY
one, you may type or handwrite using dark ink. On any one paper, if you write more
than one page, please turn the sheet over and continue on the second page. (However,
write each type of paper on an entirely new sheet: e.g., "Study
Questions" should be on one sheet, and a "Journal" should be on another,
Also, whenever you turn these types of papers in, please write, in the upper-right
corner of the first page, the following info so I can tell the difference between
the assignments, the weeks, and your class and any other section or class I might have
(and also so, if your paper is lost on campus, it will come back to me). This may
not sound like it's very important, but it makes a big difference for me. It helps
me a lot. I look at 100-300 such papers per week. I do appreciate your
help with this:
Name (First & Last)
for Instructor Name, Course and
Study Questions, Journal, Sum., Interp., Eval., Crit. Rvw.?
[for Study Questions:] Set A: 6 Responses
or Set B: 6 Points
or C: Answers about Chapter
or D: Answers about Samples
Here's an example:
for Jewell, Eng 1108-01, 1 p.m.
Study Questions [or Summary or Journal #3]
Set B: 6 Points
read every last word of every sheet of your writings about your readings?
Your writings about your readings are like biology lab practices or sports practice: they
are meant for you to practice writing on your own, to think more thoroughly about what you
have read, and/or to better remember what you have read by writing about it. Do I
read every last word? There isn't time for me to, given how many weekly papers I
assign to all my students. But that's okay; they're mainly for your practice
anyway. I do at least look at each paper to see if you've met the requirements and
have done the reading. And sometimes something grabs me and I read part or all of
these weekly papers. If you ever do want me to notice something in particular and
comment on it, or if you want to ask a question, why don't you write me a note at the very
top of the first page and circle it or mark it darkly so I'll definitely see
it. Your note might be something like "What do you think of my answer to number
2?" or "I have a question: how do I find out how to contact you?"
Then I can answer your question or check out something in your paper more carefully.
(1) First, read the
required chapter(s). Read it all if it is a general-information or
introductory-information chapter. However, if it is a chapter about one specific
type of writing (e.g., a thesis paper), then you only need to read the sections in the top
four boxes: "Introduction," "Basics," "Advanced,"
and "Samples." Reading other parts, like "Fun" and
"Exercises," is optional.
(2) Next, at the beginning of the chapter, click on the Web link to
the "General Study
Questions." This will take you to the study questions. They are
always exactly the same, and on exactly the same Web page: they never change. It
doesn't matter which chapter you are in. (The link for the
"Study Questions" usually is at the top of the chapter's home page. If you
can't find a link, go directly to the "Questions"-- by clicking here or writing
the Web address http://CollegeWriting.info/studyquestions.htm--
or go to another chapter that does have the link to the "Study Questions" and
use that link.)
(3) Once you're in "General Study Questions," look
at the four types of study questions. Choose which type you want to do.
However, please note: for a general-intro or general-info chapter, you only can do
"Study Questions Set A" or "Study Questions Set B."
For the other type of chapter--one on a specific type of writing, and also containing
sample papers--you can choose any of the four types of questions you want.
(4) When you write your study questions, please note in the upper-right
corner of your sheet of paper which set ("A: Responses" "B:
Points," "C: Answers about Chapters," or "D: Answers
about Samples") you have chosen to do. This will help me remember
which type is which, as some of these are new for me, too. You must write 150+
words. Please follow these directions in presenting all
"Study Questions" and "Journals"--again, doing so will help me process your
papers more easily, given that I have 100-400 such papers per week to look at.
The main purpose of your writing "Study Questions" is to think about the
assigned reading on paper: i.e., using a different part of your brain than is
used in reading and in marking the text. A second purpose is to better
recall what you read: studies show that the more ways you communicate--to
yourself or others--what you have read, the more you tend to remember of it.
And a third purpose is, simply, to prove to me that you did the reading. Please
remember that though this may seem tedious, it replaces pop quizzes and tests,
and it also helps almost 100% of learners remember better.
Directions: There are only a few summaries.
When you do a summary, you should write it with complete objectivity, never entering or
allowing your own opinion in it. You should try to write the summary as if the
author him or herself might write it, giving as much weight or importance to each idea as
the author would, or as little.
Most summaries in academic and business
writing are rather short. For this class, I'd like you to write 300 words or more
for each summary unless otherwise noted. Most summaries in academia and the business
world are written in the form of one or several paragraphs. However, so that you can
practice doing summaries well, in this class, please write them as a list of sentences,
with the page numbers of the reading showing on the left, and the contents of each page or
two on the right. Write a full, complete sentence for each page or two: for example,
p. 1: The author
discusses her experience of first discovering, at age 18, that she has cancer of the
pp. 2-3: She
explains how the cancer was diagnosed and how she felt about it.
p. 4: She talks about how her
closest friends responded with a mix of fear and pity.
pp. 5-6 She says she dislikes pity
and that her friends' pity for her made her feel even worse than their fear.
Be sure you have a complete
sentence for each page, don't do more than one or two pages per line, be sure to have the
page number, and make your summary 300+ words in length. For the
length, figure out how many pages you must summarize, then divide that number into 300
words: e.g., if you're going to read 60 pages, then use 300 w. / 60 = 5 words per
page. As a result, for every two pages, you'd need to write a sentence about 10
How do you know what to summarize on each page in so few words? Pick
out either the main idea or two in that page or two, or pick out the most important idea
or two in that page or two.
Directions: There are only a few journals. For the
"Hello Richard" and the "Goodbye Richard" journals, write 300+ words
thoughtfully and/or creatively. In the "Hello Richard" Journal, simply say
hi to me, tell me about yourself, and tell me how you feel about writing of different
kinds and why or how. For the "Goodbye Richard" journal, tell me how the
course worked for you, what you learned, what you still need to learn, and what you hope
to do with your learning about writing in the future. For the Journal about the Web
site, please see the directions in the "Schedule." For all three
journals, simply type/handwrite 300+ words in rough-draft form.
To read how to turn in all "Journals" and "Study
Questions," please see above, "How
To Present the Weekly Papers."
The final type of weekly papers is the drafts of papers to write each week.
You will have many drafts to write, and you will choose the subjects of them.
There will be no graded papers. You'll simply receive X's for each correct
draft. And if a draft isn't right, you'll have about a week in which to
fix it--and even fix it again, if necessary. The only limit you will have for
fixing these drafts is the length of the class itself: you must have all
the drafts (or as many as you can) done by the end of the semester.
Basically, here is how it works:
Six Draft 1's
Choose 6 subjects & write (each of the six is a different paper from
one of six different readings):
two D-1's and add more so they become two D-2's (simply improve 2 Draft
1's from the left column):
one D-2 and add more so it becomes a D-2 simply improve just one
of the Draft 2's from the column just to the left):
your D-3 and add
more so it becomes a D-4:
Paper A--Analysis #1
1st Draft 2:
Revise & expand your Draft 1
A, B, C, or D
(but you can't do two dialogic pprs.)..
One Draft 3:
Revise & expand just one of your two Draft 2's.
One Draft 4:
Revise & expand your Draft 3.
Paper B--Analysis #2
Paper C--Dialogic ppr. #1
Paper D--Dialogic ppr. #2
2nd Draft 2:
Revise & expand your Draft 1 C, D, E, or F
(but you can't do two dialogic pprs.).
Ppr. E--thesis Argument #1
Ppr. F--thesis Argument #2
At a minimum, in any such College Composition course such as this, you normally
are expected to write 10+ pages of formal writing for this course,
which means that you must successfully complete (get X's on) two Draft 4's OR
any combination of three different papers that are in the Draft 2, 3, and/or 4
stage of development. [For example, to meet this requirement, you
could have the following three papers: (1) a Draft 2 of Paper B, (2) a draft 3 of
Paper F, and (3) a Draft 4 of Paper H.]
"Course Packet" available for printing here
online also has a one-page "Table of Assignments" that show about when the
Drafts 1-4 are due (or go to the top of this Web page and click on "TABLE OF
ASSIGNMENTS"; then return to this Web by closing the MS Word window).
Draft 1's are short--about 500+ words each, and just require a typed rough draft.
The Draft 2's require the addition of more supporting details (stories, quotations, etc.)
and greater length. The Draft 3's require typing, more organization, and a bit more
length. The Draft 4's require careful editing for grammar, spelling, and
punctuation, along with a bit more final length. The directions for these papers are
in your "Course Packet," which you must print
from this Web site.
(And if you want, there are alternatives for some of the above papers.
These are explained at the very end of the "Course Packet." For Papers B and C, you
may instead write an analysis of a reading and/or an evaluation of a reading. For
Papers E and F, you may instead write a magazine article and/or a literary thesis
paper. And for Paper H, you may instead write an analysis or a recommendation
report. Again, directions for these are in the "Course Packet.")
What is the
expected work load?
How much work is a typical college class? 3 cr. = 9 hrs./wk.; 4 cr.
= 12 hrs./wk. That includes both class and homework. I'd like to ask you for
your commitment this semester to the expected amount of time for work. The Inver Hills
(and national) standard is three hours of work (two of homework and one of class time) per
week for every one college credit, to receive an average grade. This class is a
class, so please plan on spending at least twelve hours per week on class
and homework: four on class and eight on homework.
This represents an average--some weeks may be less, some
more. It also represents the work needed by the average college
student to receive an average grade (which, nationally, is probably a "B" or
"B-" in the first two years of college). If you want an "A, " have not
had much practice with writing, or tend to be a below-average student, you
may need to work more than the amount of time described here.
Please note that some people tell me they just think I am saying this to scare
them a little, but that in reality this will be like most other classes in which
you can skip a lot and still do okay. That is not the case. I am
telling you the truth. I have surveyed many of my composition classes
(both 1108 and 1114), and the average hrs. per week that people work for and
attend my class (combined) in 1108 is about 10 hrs./week. This works out
to about 3.5 hrs. of attendance and 6.5 hrs. of homework per week. And the
average grade is a B. If you want an A - or if you are weak in writing -
you may have to work much harder and longer. And there will be some weeks
that are much, much harder, while others may be a bit easier.
my students tell me that they rarely have to work as hard in other classes as
they have in mine. But those who finish almost always tell me it was well
worth it because of how much they have learned. Ask around.
What about late
papers and make ups?
If you miss homework, you may turn it in as extra credit,
but only for the exact amount of time spent on it. If you miss doing
cannot get normal homework credit for them. To see more about make up/extra credit for
attendance, please go to "ATTENDANCE/Makeup and Extra Credit."
Why can't you get regular homework credit for missing homework? There are
two or three reasons.
They all boil down to the fact that we can't accomplish as much, have as much
fun, or develop your writing abilities as well if you can be late all the time
in getting your homework done. If you're interested in the four reasons
individually, here they are:
(1) First and most important, much of the value of doing homework is gone when you do it
very late--after we have discussed it in class/on the bulletin board. If a lot of
people didn't read the assignment on time (which is what happens when a teacher doesn't
require it), I would have to review and explain the assignment step by step before we, as
a whole class, could practice it or talk about it in some way.
And if I did this,
even fewer people would want to read the assignment, which would result in my needing to
review the assignment in class even longer. As a result, there would be no point in
giving the assignment, and all I would be doing is spending each class reviewing.
Instead, if most of you have read the assignment ahead of time, not only will you know the
material much better, but also--and more important--we can do something with the
material in class. We can do group work, class games, discussion and sharing, etc.,
(2) In addition, you won't be able to talk very well on the online discussion
boards (if our class has them) if you haven't read the assignment. You
might say things that don't even apply, and/or other people in the class might
have to take the time to tell you what is in the reading assignment.
(3) And a final reason is that with all the writing and revising of your
Drafts 3 and 4 near the end, you wouldn't do as well on these final drafts if
you were taking a lot of time out to make up of a bunch of other homework.
are, however, exceptions. They are as follows:
In the first several weeks, if you have made an honest mistake about when
something is due, talk with me, and I can make an exception. This is good only for a
few weeks, until everyone understands the rules.
Also, weekly homework is
not due if you aren't in class. You can simply turn it in at the
beginning of the next class you attend, and write on it "missed last class." I'll
then accept it
automatically for full credit. (However, there are two final deadlines
for weekly homework - Wk. 7 and Wk. 15 - that cannot for any reason be
Remember, however, that you are allowed
make up/extra credit. In fact, you can do so much attendance make up/extra credit
that it can help balance out a bad homework grade. You can just keep doing
attendance extra credit way past an "A+" for attendance--e.g., you can earn an
A++++--and this will average in with your homework grade to help pull it up higher.
For example, if you were to receive a "B" for homework (60% of your overall
grade) because of missing assignments, you could do a lot of make up and extra credit work
for attendance and receive an "A++++++" for attendance (20% of your overall
grade); each "+" equals 1/3 of a letter grade, and the two grades here would
average to a full "A."
Again, if you are
interested in doing make up/extra credit for attendance, please go to "ATTENDANCE/Makeup and Extra Credit."
Submitting Homework outside of Class?
Submitting Homework in Person, at My Home, or by Email
Fall 2014-Spring 2015
you submit a Draft-2, -3, or -4, you must always give me the following:
Most recent older paper
Most recent cover sheets with my marks on them
Your newest revised paper
(4.) (Are you turning in an entirely new D-2, -3, or -4?
If so, then give me the above 3 things, and also fill in and add
the new cover sheets for it.)
You can submit a D-2, D-3, or D-4 in one of four ways:
it to me at class.
Slide it under my B-136 office door.
(In 2014-2015, do this no later in the week than
when I leave Thurs. I am
campus Friday through Monday. That means if you leave a paper
Fri.-Mon., I won’t find it until Tues. noon. And I may not have time
Bring it to my condo 24/7
in Minneapolis. For directions, see
(In 2014-15, I need it no later than Sunday night. If
you don’t hand it to
personally, let me know by email it is there.)
D. Send it by email attachment:
Don’t just email the paper by itself. I always need to see three
things: first, the old cover sheets with your and my writing on
it; second, the most recent older version of the paper,
especially if it has my markings on it; and third, the newest paper.
Most of you will want to give me the parts of the paper like this:
a. At school, give me your old cover sheets with your and my
writing on them.
b. At school, also give me your most recent older paper with my
marks on it.
c. And write me a note on the top sheet: “Will send rest by
d. Then, later, email me one email attachment—just of the paper
itself—the newest version of
paper. When you email it, be sure to do the following:
i. First, be sure your Works Cited page is the last page of the
(Do NOT send the Works Cited by separate attachment!)
Email your paper as an MS Word attachment
(as a “.docx” or “.doc” file). (Do NOT send it in the email itself, or
as an .rtf or other file.)
iii. Be sure to tell me in your email which section number—or
time and days—you meet
(because I have several sections of writing classes).
And if your email address doesn’t show your first and last
name, let me know that, too
(because in several sections of writing, I have students with the same
first or last names).
Are you giving me an entirely new, first-time D-2, -3, or -4? If so,
then send me a 2nd email attachment: fill in your
new, blank cover sheets, and then send them to me as an MS Word
(How do you do this? The easiest way to get the cover sheets is to
bring up the Course Packet and delete all the pages before and after
the specific cover sheets you want. In that way, you will preserve the
margins. Then save the file to your desktop. And then you can add it
to your email as an attachment.)
If you are able to take full-size manuscript photos/.pdf files, then
you can also send the old paper and old cover sheets by email
attachment using .pdf attachments.
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